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General

Q1. What is a Novel Coronavirus ?

"A novel coronavirus is a new coronavirus that has not been previously identified. The virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is not the same as the coronaviruses that commonly circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold.

A diagnosis with coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1 is not the same as a COVID-19 diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 will be evaluated and cared for differently than patients with common coronavirus diagnosis. "

Q2. Why is the disease being called as Coronavirus 2019 COVID-19?

"The new name of this disease is coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as COVID-19. In COVID-19, ‘CO’ stands for ‘corona,’ ‘VI’ for ‘virus,’ and ‘D’ for disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV”.

There are many types of human coronaviruses including some that commonly cause mild upper-respiratory tract illnesses. COVID-19 is a new disease, caused be a novel (or new) coronavirus that has not previously been seen in humans. The name of this disease was selected following the World Health Organization (WHO) best practice for naming of new human infectious diseases. "

Q3. What is the source of virus?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some cause illness in people, and others, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, only infect animals. Rarely, animal coronaviruses that infect animals have emerged to infect people and can spread between people.

Q4. How does virus spread?

This virus was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The first infections were linked to a live animal market, but the virus is now spreading from person-to-person. It’s important to note that person-to-person spread can happen on a continuum. Some viruses are highly contagious (like measles), while other viruses are less so.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
  • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet)
  • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks.
  • These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
  • Recent studies indicate that people who are infected but do not have symptoms likely also play a role in the spread of COVID-19. The contribution of small respirable particles, sometimes called aerosols or droplet nuclei, to close proximity transmission is currently uncertain. However, airborne transmission from person-to-person over long distances is unlikely.

Q5. How long does the virus survive on surfaces?

It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces, but it seems to behave like other coronaviruses. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days. This may vary under different conditions (e.g. type of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment).the difference in studies it lasts on cardboard for 24 hrs, steel for 3 days but in one cruise ship (one study published in NEJM) it lasted for 17 days.

If you think a surface may be infected, clean it with simple disinfectant to kill the virus and protect yourself and others. Clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.

Q6. How effective are thermal scanners in detecting people infected with the new coronavirus?

Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus.

However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever. This is because it takes between 2 and 10 days before people who are infected become sick and develop a fever.

Q7. What are the symptoms of corona virus ?

These symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure (based on the incubation period of MERS-CoV viruses). • Fever • Cough • Shortness of breath
Lately new symptoms are also occurring like Inosmia, ( loss of smell) Anecdotal evidence is rapidly accumulating from sites around the world that loss of smell without any other symptoms are significant symptoms associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. (American society of otolaryngologists laryngology entnet.org ).

Q8.Who is at higher risk for serious illness from COVID19 ?

Older adults and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions may be at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19. These people who may be at higher risk of getting very sick from this illness, includes: • Older adults • People who have serious underlying medical conditions like Heart disease, Diabetes, Lung disease

Q9. Are Smokers and tobacco users at higher risk of COVID-19 infection?

Smokers are likely to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 as the act of smoking means that fingers (and possibly contaminated cigarettes) are in contact with lips, which increases the possibility of transmission of virus from hand to mouth. Smokers may also already have lung disease or reduced lung capacity, which would greatly increase risk of serious illness.

Smoking products such as water pipes often involve the sharing of mouthpieces and hoses, which could facilitate the transmission of COVID-19 in communal and social settings.

Conditions that increase oxygen needs or reduce the ability of the body to use it properly will put patients at higher risk of serious lung conditions such as pneumonia

Q10. I am having some symptoms. What should I do?

  • Call ahead: Many medical visits for routine care are being postponed or done by phone or telemedicine. Please do not go directly to your PCP (Primary care physician) office.>
  • If you have to go to PCP (Primary care physician) fro evaluation, call your doctor’s office, and tell them you have or may have COVID-19. This will help the office protect themselves and other patients. If you are sick wear a facemask

Q11. When to Seek emergency Medical Attention

If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include*: • Trouble breathing
• Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
• New confusion or inability to arouse
• Bluish lips or face
*This list is not all inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.

Call 911 if you have a medical emergency: If you have a medical emergency and need to call 911, notify the operator that you have or think you might have, COVID-19. If possible, put on a facemask before medical help arrives.

Q12. My family member is sick with COVID 19 what should I do?

This list is not all-inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.
  • Use a separate room and bathroom for sick household members (if possible).
  • Provide your sick household member with clean disposable facemasks to wear at home, if available, to help prevent spreading COVID-19 to others.
  • Clean the sick room and bathroom , as needed, to avoid unnecessary contact with the sick person.
  • Avoid sharing personal items like utensils, food, and drinks.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after interacting with the sick person. If soap and water are not readily available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Every day, clean all surfaces that are touched often, like counters, tabletops, and doorknobs
  • Use household cleaning sprays or wipes according to the label instructions.
  • Wash laundry thoroughly.
  • If laundry is soiled, wear disposable gloves and keep the soiled items away from your body while laundering. Wash your hands immediately after removing gloves.
  • Avoid having any unnecessary visitors.
  • For any additional questions about their care, contact their healthcare provider or state or local health department.

Q13. Can the virus that causes COVID19 be spread through food, including refrigerated and frozen food?

Coronaviruses are generally thought to be spread from person-to-person through respiratory droplets. Currently there is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with food. Before preparing or eating food it is important to always wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds for general food safety. Throughout the day wash your hands after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing, or going to the bathroom.

It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

In general, because of poor survivability of these coronaviruses on surfaces, there is likely very low risk of spread from food products or packaging that are shipped over a period of days or weeks at ambient, refrigerated, or frozen temperatures.

Q14. Will warm weather stop the outbreak of COVID19?

It is not yet known whether weather and temperature impact the spread of COVID-19. Some other viruses, like the common cold and flu, spread more during cold weather months but that does not mean it is impossible to become sick with these viruses during other months. At this time, it is not known whether the spread of COVID-19 will decrease when weather becomes warmer. There is much more to learn about the transmissibility, severity, and other features associated with COVID-19 and investigations are ongoing.

Q15. Can SARS-cov2, the virus that causes COVID19, be transmitted by blood transfusion?

In general, respiratory viruses are not known to be transmitted by blood transfusion, and there have been no reported cases of transfusion-transmitted coronavirus.

Q16. Am I at risk for COVID19 from a package or products shipping from china?

There is still a lot that is unknown about the newly emerged COVID-19 and how it spreads. Two other coronaviruses have emerged previously to cause severe illness in people (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV). The virus that causes COVID-19 is more genetically related to SARS-CoV than MERS-CoV, but both are beta coronaviruses with their origins in bats. While we don’t know for sure that this virus will behave the same way as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we can use the information gained from both of these earlier coronaviruses to guide us. In general, because of poor survivability of these coronaviruses on surfaces, there is likely very low risk of spread from products or packaging that are shipped over a period of days or weeks at ambient temperatures. Coronaviruses are generally thought to be spread most often by respiratory droplets. Currently there is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with imported goods and there have not been any cases of COVID-19 in the United States associated with imported goods.

Q17. Should I use soap and water or a hand sanitizer to protect against COVID-19?

Handwashing is one of the best ways to protect yourself and your family from getting sick. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; going to the bathroom; and before eating or preparing food. If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.

Q18. What cleaning products should I use to protect against COVID-19?

Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces such as tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. If surfaces are dirty, clean them using detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection.
To disinfect:
Most common EPA-registered household disinfectants will work. Use disinfectants appropriate for the surface.
Options include:
Diluting your household bleach. To make a bleach solution, mix:
5 tablespoons (1/3rd cup) bleach per gallon of water or 4 teaspoons bleach per quart of water
Follow manufacturer’s instructions for application and proper ventilation. Check to ensure the product is not past its expiration date. Never mix household bleach with ammonia or any other cleanser. Unexpired household bleach will be effective against coronaviruses when properly diluted.
Alcohol solutions. Ensure solution has at least 70% alcohol.
Other common EPA-registered household disinfectants.
Products with EPA-approved emerging viral pathogens pdf claims are expected to be effective against COVID-19 based on data for harder to kill viruses. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for all cleaning and disinfection products (e.g., concentration, application method and contact time, etc.).

Q19. Should I wear a mask to protect myself?

Only wear a mask if you are ill with COVID-19 symptoms (especially coughing) or looking after someone who may have COVID-19. Disposable face mask can only be used once. If you are not ill or looking after someone who is ill then you are wasting a mask. There is a world-wide shortage of masks, so WHO urges people to use masks wisely.

WHO advises rational use of medical masks to avoid unnecessary wastage of precious resources and mis-use of masks.

The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing. See basic protective measures against the new coronavirus for more information.
• If you are sick: You should wear a facemask, if available, when you are around other people (including before you enter a healthcare provider’s office).
• If you are caring for others: If the person who is sick is not able to wear a facemask (for example, because it causes trouble breathing), then as their caregiver, you should wear a facemask when in the same room with them. Visitors, other than caregivers, are not recommended.

Note: During a public health emergency, facemasks may be reserved for healthcare workers. You may need to improvise a facemask using a scarf or bandana.

Q19a. Can homemade masks protect you from COVID-19?

In the past, infectious disease experts questioned the value of homemade cloth masks as a defense against viruses like the flu. But now those same experts are urging medical professionals who only have access to limited protective equipment to use homemade cloth masks if they have absolutely no other option. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends that health care providers with absolutely no other option use a bandana or scarf when treating patients with COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus. However, this should ideally be paired with a face shield, and even then, the impact on disease reduction is unknown.

Q20. Why might someone blame or avoid individuals and groups to create stigma because of Covid-19 ?

People in the U.S. may be worried or anxious about friends and relatives who are living in or visiting areas where COVID-19 is spreading. Some people are worried about the disease. Fear and anxiety can lead to social stigma, for example, towards Chinese or other Asian Americans or people who were in quarantine.

Stigma is discrimination against an identifiable group of people, a place, or a nation. Stigma is associated with a lack of knowledge about how COVID-19 spreads, a need to blame someone, fears about disease and death, and gossip that spreads rumors and myths.

Q21. How can people help to stop Stigma related to COVID-19?

Stigma hurts everyone by creating more fear or anger towards ordinary people instead of the disease that is causing the problem. People can fight stigma and help, not hurt, others by providing social support. Counter stigma by learning and sharing facts. Communicating the facts that viruses do not target specific racial or ethnic groups and how COVID-19 actually spreads can help stop stigma.

Q22. What is the morbidity (sickness with complications) and mortality (death) rates of COVID-19 compared to other viruses?

A: Seasonal influenza typically results among - for seasonal influenza approximately .1 to .2% of people who get ill will die due to the virus. The estimates for the mortality of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 vary, and that's to be expected because it's different populations, and there are different methodologies for the studies. In general, studies have shown SARS-CoV-2 has a mortality rate of 2-3%. Morbidity is more difficult to predict. SARS-CoV-2 has already surpassed the SARS disease outbreak in 2003-2004, MERs, and Ebola across the globe. SARS-CoV-2 has already infected hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, and it’s reasonable to predict it will infect millions of people.

Q23. My family member is returning from an international trip. What should I do?

A: It is difficult to advise on your specific situation, however, adherence to proper hand hygiene and good infection control measures (e.g. frequent cleaning commonly used surfaces, etc.) go a long way in preventing transmission even in close contact situations. If they have travelled from countries below with virus spread, they should be quarantined for 14 days

Countries that have a Level 3 Travel Health Notice (widespread, ongoing transmission)

Global Level 4 Health Advisory – Do Not Travel has been issued on March 20

Q24. Should I travel within the US?

CDC does not generally issue advisories or restrictions for travel within the United States. However, cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported in many states, and some areas are experiencing community spread of the disease. Crowded travel settings, like airports, may increase chances of getting COVID-19, if there are other travelers with coronavirus infection. There are several things you should consider when deciding whether it is safe for you to travel. Things to consider before travel:
  • Q: Is COVID-19 spreading in the area where you’re going?
    A: If COVID-19 is spreading at your destination, but not where you live, you may be more likely to get infected if you travel there than if you stay home. If you have questions about your destination, you should check your destination’s local health department website for more information.
  • Q: Will you or your travel companion(s) be in close contact with others during your trip?
    A: Your risk of exposure to respiratory viruses like coronavirus may increase in crowded settings, particularly closed-in settings with little air circulation. This may include settings such as conferences, public events (like concerts and sporting events), religious gatherings, public spaces (like movie theatres and shopping malls), and public transportation (like buses, metro, trains).
  • Q: Are you or your travel companion(s) more likely to get severe illness if you get COVID-19?
    A: People at higher risk for severe disease are older adults and people of any age with serious chronic medical conditions (such as heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes). CDC recommends that travelers at higher risk for COVID-19 complications avoid all cruise travel and nonessential air travel.
  • Q: Do you have a plan for taking time off from work or school, in case you are told to stay home for 14 days for self-monitoring or if you get sick with COVID-19?
    A: If you have close contact with someone with COVID-19 during travel, you may be asked to stay home to self-monitor and avoid contact with others for up to 14 days after travel. If you become sick with COVID-19, you may be unable to go to work or school until you’re considered noninfectious. You will be asked to avoid contact with others (including being in public places) during this period of infectiousness.
  • Q: Do you live with someone who is older or has a serious, chronic medical condition?
    A: If you get sick with COVID-19 upon your return from travel, your household contacts may be at risk of infection. Household contacts who are older adults or persons of any age with severe chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.
  • Q: Is COVID-19 spreading where I live when I return from travel?
    A: Consider the risk of passing COVID-19 to others during travel, particularly if you will be in close contact with people who are older adults or have severe chronic health condition These people are at higher risk of getting very sick. If your symptoms are mild or you don’t have a fever, you may not realize you are infectious.
    Depending on your unique circumstances, you may choose to delay or cancel your plans. If you do decide to travel, be sure to take steps to help prevent getting and spreading COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases during travel. For the most up-to-date COVID-19 travel information, visit CDC COVID-19 Travel page.

Q25. Are pregnant healthcare personnel at increased risk for adverse outcomes if they care for patients with COVID-19?

A: Pregnant healthcare personnel (HCP) should follow risk assessment and infection control guidelines for HCP exposed to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Adherence to recommended infection prevention and control practices is an important part of protecting all HCP in healthcare settings. Information on COVID-19 in pregnancy is very limited; facilities may want to consider limiting exposure of pregnant HCP to patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19, especially during higher risk procedures (e.g., aerosol-generating procedures) if feasible based on staffing availability.

Q26. How do I unpack groceries safely?

Here is the vidoe which shows how to unpack the groceries safely.

Testing Questions

Source: FDA 3/25/20 Diagnostics update to date: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA has worked with more than 190 test developers who have said they will be submitting applications to make tests that detect the virus. To date, 18 emergency use authorizations have been issued for nation-wide use. Additionally, under our COVID-19 laboratory developed test policy, the FDA has been notified by more than 100 laboratories. The FDA also added additional updates to its COVID-19 Diagnostics FAQ.

Q1. Who should be tested

Not everyone needs to be tested for COVID-19. Here is some information that might help in making decisions about seeking care or testing.

• Most people have mild illness are able to recover at home.
> • There is no treatment specifically approved for this virus.
• Testing results may be helpful to inform decision-making about who you come in contact with.

CDC has guidance for who should be tested, but decisions about testing are at the discretion of state and local health departments and/or individual clinicians.
• Clinicians should work with their state and local health departments to coordinate testing through public health laboratories, or work with clinical or commercial laboratories.
• IF you really have symptoms with high fever and dry cough and some risk factor with travel please call PCP if you want to get tested.

Q2. How to get tested?

If you have symptoms of COVID-19 and want to get tested, try calling your state or local health department or a medical provider. While supplies of these tests are increasing, it may still be difficult to find a place to get tested.

Q3. Where can I get tested?

Sites to go for Covid testing if you have suspected corona virus
JUST a REMINDER NO sites have walk in testing "

Q3a. Test site- UPMC Pinnacle

UPMC Pinnacle will begin directing patients who received physician consultation and referral for symptoms consistent with COVID-19 to an outpatient specimen collection site at 775 S. Arlington Ave., Harrisburg.
The site is not open to the public, and walk-in patients will not be tested. This test is available to Hospitalized patients only
People who suspect they have COVID-19 but do not have a high fever or breathing problems should call their primary care physician or use their provider’s virtual visit options to get advice. Anyone with a high fever or more prominent breathing trouble should go to their local emergency department for evaluation and care. For more information, visit UPMCPinnacle.com/COVID19.
UPMC Opens Second COVID-19 Specimen Collection Site in Dauphin County
On March 30, UPMC Pinnacle opened the second coronavirus collection site at 1000 Paxton Street, Harrisburg, for patients who received physician consultation and referral for symptoms consistent with COVID-19.
The site is not open to the public, and walk-in patients will not be tested. If testing is sought, the patient must be evaluated by their care provider, who then must assess the need and contact the UPMC Pinnacle infection prevention team. That team will review the key information and if testing is deemed needed, an appointment will be scheduled to have their specimen collected. Patients will receive a call with their scheduled appointment information and should self-isolate until that appointment.

Q3b. Test site- Hershey Medical center

Penn State Health now offers free virtual screenings for COVID-19 through its telehealth service, Penn State Health OnDemand.

Anyone with concerns that they may have COVID-19 may use Penn State Health OnDemand to talk directly with a provider who can evaluate their symptoms and make care recommendations.

Penn State Health OnDemand is staffed with Penn State Health providers 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

“It is critical for people who believe they may have COVID-19 to speak with a provider before going to any clinic, urgent care or emergency room,” said Chris LaCoe, vice president of operations at Penn State Health. “This service will screen patients from home, potentially eliminating the need to make a trip at all.”

To access this service, people can download the free Penn State Health OnDemand Virtual Visits app, available for both iOS and Android, or on their computer. Users can enroll by creating a free login and completing a personal profile. To connect with a provider for a free COVID-19 screening visit, users should select “Coronavirus Screen.” The screening visit is available for patients of any age.

Penn State Health has opened a drive-through COVID-19 testing site on the campus of Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center only for patients that have used OnDemand and received an order for the test from a provider.

This drive-through is not open to the general public; patients must have a doctor’s order from the OnDemand app

Q3c. Test site-WELLSPAN

WellSpan has begun the use of dedicated evaluation and/or treatment/testing collection sites (many are open-air tents) for individuals that have been instructed to go by their physician. The majority of patients (roughly 80%) can self-isolate at home following testing as part of their recovery. Read more about our locations in the next question.

As part of this process, we have limited visitation at our hospitals and outpatient locations, with certain clincial exceptions. Click here learn more.

We have also placed signs at all of our practices asking patients to call the office or their doctor before coming inside if they may be experiencing symtoms related to COVID-19, or if they have come in contact with someone that has tested positive. We have introduced similar messages into our online scheduling and appointment reminders. In addition, we have placed an alert and information on our website. "

Q4. How do the testing sites works?

The use of dedicated evaluation and/or treatment/testing collection sites (many are open-air tents) for individuals that have been instructed to go by their physician. They are not meant for walk-up individuals.

Patients should call their primary care provider to be screened to determine any need for testing. Patients that do not have a primary care physician can take advantage of an online screening tool at the bottom of this page to determine if they may be at risk for COVID-19. Also, patients are encouraged to use WellSpan Online Urgent Care to be seen quickly and safely, without the need to travel to a care location. Patients should visit WellSpan.org/OUC to get started. If you have a question related to the coronavirus (COVID-19) and you don’t have a primary care doctor, WellSpan Health has set up a Coronavirus Information Hotline toll-free at (855) 851-3641. If you are concerned you or your loved one may have contracted coronavirus (COVID-19), you can call this phone line with questions daily from 8:30 a.m. – 7:30 p.m. This line is meant to provide general information about the coronavirus related to prevention, risk, screening and instructions on when to seek care

Q4a. How long it takes to get the test back ?

It is very difficult to predict .It depends on the back log , quality control ,testing ,availability of LAB, It is taking somewhere between 3 days to 7 days to get results
  • Turnaround time for COVID-19 testing is typically 4-5 days from the time of specimen pick-up, but can vary due to high demand.
  • Commercial labs are introducing new prioritization efforts in partnership with hospitals and health systems across the nation to expedite turnaround time for in hospital patients and symptomatic hospital healthcare workers within 2-3 days
.

Q5. is there a quick test available ?

Rapid Real Time RT-PCR test for COVID19 (FDA)
Device: Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 test
Company: Cepheid
The Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 test is a rapid, real-time RT-PCR test ( nucleic acid amplification technology) intended for the qualitative detection of nucleic acid from the SARS-CoV-2 in either nasopharyngeal swab and/or nasal wash/ aspirate specimens collected from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider.

The SARS-CoV-2 RNA is generally detectable during the acute phase of infection. Positive results are indicative of active infection with SARS-CoV-2;
This test has been authorized by FDA under an EUA for use by authorized laboratories; At present no Laboratory is performing the test but will be tested soon. Also this will first be available to Hospital patients
Only Abbott has received emergency use authorization (EUA) from FDA for the fastest available molecular point-of-care test for the detection of novel coronavirus (COVID-19), delivering positive results in as little as five minutes and negative results in 13 minutes. (Abbott ID NOW COVID-19

The FDA issued an emergency use authorization, on April 1, 2020, to Cellex Inc.’s qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test which is the first serology test to date to receive authorization to test for the presence of coronavirus antibodies. Cellex’s labeling notes that test results from this serology test should not be used as the sole basis for diagnosis and can only aid in the diagnosis of patients in conjunction with a medical review of symptoms and results of other laboratory tests. At this time, it is unknown for how long IgM or IgG antibodies may persist following infection. Negative results do not preclude SARS-CoV-2 infection and should not be used as the sole basis for patient management decisions. IgM antibodies may not be detected in the first few days of infection; the sensitivity of the qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test early after infection is unknown.
Test results should be read between 15 and 20 minutes after a specimen is applied to the sample well.

Q6. Can a person test negative and later test positive for COVID-19 ?

Using the CDC-developed diagnostic test, a negative result means that the virus that causes COVID-19 was not found in the person’s sample. In the early stages of infection, it is possible the virus will not be detected.
For COVID-19, a negative test result for a sample collected while a person has symptoms likely means that the COVID-19 virus is not causing their current illness.

Q7. When do I stop isolation?

People with COVID-19 who have stayed home (home isolated) can stop home isolation under the following conditions:
  • If you will not have a test to determine if you are still contagious, you can leave home after these three things have happened:
    • You have had no fever for at least 72 hours (that is three full days of no fever without the use medicine that reduces fevers)
    • AND other symptoms have improved (for example, when your cough or shortness of breath have improved)
    • AND at least 7 days have passed since your symptoms first appeared
  • If you will be tested to determine if you are still contagious, you can leave home after these three things have happened:
    • You no longer have a fever (without the use medicine that reduces fevers)
    • AND other symptoms have improved (for example, when your cough or shortness of breath have improved)
    • AND you received two negative tests in a row, 24 hours apart. Your doctor will follow CDC guidelines.

Treatment questions

Q1. Are there any specific medicines to prevent or treat the new coronavirus?

To date, there is no specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
However, those infected with the virus should receive appropriate care to relieve and treat symptoms, and those with severe illness should receive optimized supportive care. Some specific treatments are under investigation, and will be tested through clinical trials. WHO is helping to accelerate research and development efforts with a range or partners.

Q2. Are there are vaccines or other medical products to prevent COVID19 ?

At this time there is no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The FDA is working with vaccine developers and other researchers and manufacturers to help expedite the development and availability of medical products such as vaccines, antibodies, and drugs to prevent COVID-19.

Q3. Are there any FDA -approved drug products or medicines to treat COVID19?

At this time, there are no FDA-approved drug products to treat COVID-19. The FDA is working with drug manufacturers and investigational new drug sponsors to expedite the development and availability of COVID-19 treatments.
On March 28, 2020, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to allow hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate products donated to the Strategic National Stockpile(SNS) to be distributed and used for certain hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
On March 24 ,2020 One investigational treatment being explored for COVID-19 involves the use of convalescent plasma collected from recovered COVID-19 patients. It is possible that convalescent plasma that contains antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) might be effective against the infection.

Q4. How is COVID-19 treated?

Not all patients with COVID-19 will require medical supportive care. Clinical management for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is focused on supportive care of complications, including advanced organ support for respiratory failure, septic shock, and multi-organ failure. Empiric testing and treatment for other viral or bacterial etiologies may be warranted.
Corticosteroids are not routinely recommended for viral pneumonia or ARDS and should be avoided unless they are indicated for another reason (e.g., COPD exacerbation, refractory septic shock following Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines).
There are currently no antiviral drugs licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat COVID-19. Remdesivir, an investigational antiviral drug, was reported to have in-vitro activity against COVID-19. A small number of patients with COVID-19 have received intravenous remdesivir for compassionate use of combination lopinavir-ritonavir treatment has been also been conducted in patients with COVID-19 in China, but no results are available to date. Trials of other potential therapeutics for COVID-19 are being planned. For information on specific clinical trials underway for treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection, see clinicaltrials.gov.

Q5. Should post-exposure prophylaxis be used for people who may have been exposed to COVID-19?

There is currently no FDA-approved post-exposure prophylaxis for people who may have been exposed to COVID-19

Q6. Can hydroxychloroquin be utilized to prevent the disease?

There is no data to show that it prevents the disease. The drug was used in only 2 short trials in china with +ve covid infection With inconclusive results and had some side effects .

Myths about Corona virus

Q1. COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in areas with hot and humid climates?

From the evidence so far, the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS, including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate, adopt protective measures if you live in, or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.

Q2. Cold weather and snow CANNOT kill the new coronavirus.?

There is no reason to believe that cold weather can kill the new coronavirus or other diseases. The normal human body temperature remains around 36.5°C (97.9°F) to 37°C (98.6°F) regardless of the external temperature or weather. The most effective way to protect yourself against the new coronavirus is by frequently cleaning your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or washing them with soap and water.

Q3.Taking a hot bath does not prevent the new coronavirus disease

Taking a hot bath will not prevent you from catching COVID-19. Your normal body temperature remains around 36.5°C (97.9°F) to 37°C (98.6°F), regardless of the temperature of your bath or shower. Actually, taking a hot bath with extremely hot water can be harmful, as it can burn you. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.

Q4.The new coronavirus CANNOT be transmitted through mosquito bites.

To date there has been no information nor evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted by mosquitoes. The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Also, avoid close contact with anyone who is coughing and sneezing.

Q5. Are hand dryers effective in killing the new coronavirus?

No. Hand dryers are not effective in killing the 2019-nCoV. To protect yourself against the new coronavirus, you should frequently clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Once your hands are cleaned, you should dry them thoroughly by using paper towels or a warm air dryer.

6. Can an ultraviolet disinfection lamp kill the new coronavirus?

UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation.

Q7. Do vaccines against pneumonia protect you against the new coronavirus?

No. Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccine, do not provide protection against the new coronavirus.

The virus is so new and different that it needs its own vaccine. Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine against 2019-nCoV, and WHO is supporting their efforts.

Although these vaccines are not effective against 2019-nCoV, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is highly recommended to protect your health.

Q8. Can spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body kill the new coronavirus?

No. Spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body will not kill viruses that have already entered your body. Spraying such substances can be harmful to clothes or mucous membranes (i.e. eyes, mouth). Be aware that both alcohol and chlorine can be useful to disinfect surfaces, but they need to be used under appropriate recommendations.

Q9. Can regularly rinsing your nose with saline help prevent infection with the new coronavirus?

No. There is no evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline has protected people from infection with the new coronavirus.

There is some limited evidence that regularly rinsing nose with saline can help people recover more quickly from the common cold. However, regularly rinsing the nose has not been shown to prevent respiratory infections.

Q10. Can eating garlic help prevent infection with the new coronavirus?

Garlic is a healthy food that may have some antimicrobial properties. However, there is no evidence from the current outbreak that eating garlic has protected people from the new coronavirus.

Q11. I Can get COVID19 from my pet?

While there has been one instance of a dog being infected in Hong Kong, to date, there is no evidence that a dog, cat or any pet can transmit COVID-19. COVID-19 is mainly spread through droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently and thoroughly.

WHO continues to monitor the latest research on this and other COVID-19 topics and will update as new findings are available.

Q12. I Need To Stockpile As Many Groceries And Supplies As I Can?

Please only buy what your family needs for a week. It is important to remember that many families may be unable to buy a supply of food and water for weeks in advance. Consumer demand has recently been exceptionally high – especially for grocery, household cleaning, and some healthcare products. Freight flows are not disrupted, but stores need time to restock.

Q13. Only Those Over 60 Years Of Age And Those With Existing Health Problems Are At Risk From The Coronavirus.

It is an unfortunate rumor that only people over 60 years of age are at risk of getting this disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), those at higher risk include older adults and people with serious chronic medical conditions. However, symptoms can range from mild to severe and may have different complications for each individual The CDC has a list of COVID-19 symptoms you may experience. Please continue to follow the official information from the CDC.

In NY 40 % of people infected are between 19-44 years of age.

Q14. A Recent Death Reported In China Was Due To A New Hantavirus That Can Spread From Person To Person Like COVID-19.

Hantavirus is not new – according to the CDC, it was first observed in the 1950s in Asia during the Korean War, and in this country in 1993 in the Four Corners area. It is spread primarily to humans through contact with the waste products of infected rodents. Transmission from one human to another may occur, but is extremely rare.
Visit https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus for more information

Q15. Kids can't catch the coronavirus?

Children can definitely catch COVID-19, though initial reports suggested fewer cases in children compared with adults. For example, a Chinese study from Hubei province released in February found that of more than 44,000 cases of COVID-19, about only 2.2% involved children under age 19.
However, more recent studies suggest children are as likely as adults to become infected. In a study reported March 5, researchers analyzed data from more than 1,500 people in Shenzhen, and found that children potentially exposed to the virus were just as likely to become infected as adults were, according to Nature News. Regardless of age, about 7% to 8% of contacts of COVID-19 cases later tested positive for the virus.
Still, when children become infected, they seem less likely to develop severe disease, Live Science previously reported.

Q16. Vitamin C supplements will stop you from catching COVID-19

Researchers have yet to find any evidence that vitamin C supplements can render people immune to COVID-19 infection. In fact, for most people, taking extra vitamin C does not even ward off the common cold, though it may shorten the duration of a cold if you catch one.

So yes, vitamin C should absolutely be included in your daily diet if you want to maintain a healthy immune system. But megadosing on supplements is unlikely to lower your risk of catching COVID-19, and may at most give you a ""modest"" advantage against the virus, should you become infected. No evidence suggests that other so-called immune-boosting supplements — such as zinc, green tea or echinacea — help to prevent COVID-19, either.

Q17. Getting COVID-19 is a death sentence?

That's not true. About 81% of people who are infected with the coronavirus have mild cases of COVID-19, according to a study published Feb. 18 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. About 13.8% report severe illness, meaning they have shortness of breath, or require supplemental oxygen, and about 4.7% are critical, meaning they face respiratory failure, multi-organ failure or septic shock. The data thus far suggests that only around 2.3% of people infected with COVID-19 die from the virus. People who are older or have underlying health conditions seem to be most at risk of having severe disease or complications. While there's no need to panic, people should take steps to prepare and protect themselves and others from the new coronavirus.

Q18. You can recover from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Catching the new coronavirus DOES NOT mean you will have it for life.

Most of the people who catch COVID-19 can recover and eliminate the virus from their bodies. If you catch the disease, make sure you treat your symptoms. If you have cough, fever, and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early – but call your health facility by telephone first. Most patients recover thanks to supportive care.

Q19. Being able to hold your breath for 10 seconds or more without coughing or feeling discomfort DOES NOT mean you are free from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) or any other lung disease.

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are dry cough, tiredness and fever. Some people may develop more severe forms of the disease, such as pneumonia. The best way to confirm if you have the virus producing COVID-19 disease is with a laboratory test. You cannot confirm it with this breathing exercise, which can even be dangerous.

Q20. Drinking alcohol does not protect you against COVID-19 and can be dangerous

Frequent or excessive alcohol consumption can increase your risk of health problems.

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